Frequently Asked Questions


The Mechanical Licensing Collective (The MLC) is a nonprofit organization designated by the U.S. Copyright Office pursuant to the historic Music Modernization Act of 2018. In January 2021, The MLC began administering blanket mechanical licenses to eligible streaming and download services (digital service providers or DSPs) in the United States. The MLC collects the royalties due under those licenses from the DSPs and pay songwriters, composers, lyricists, and music publishers. 
The MLC has built a publicly accessible musical works database, as well as The MLC Portal that creators and music publishers can use to submit and maintain their musical works data. These tools will help ensure that creators and music publishers are paid properly. 

The Mechanical Licensing Collective was established by the Music Modernization Act of 2018 (MMA). This historic legislation sought to create a more efficient and effective way for digital service providers (DSPs) to license the music they make available on their platforms and ensure the proper rightsholders – self-administered songwriters, composers, and lyricists and music publishers and administrators – were paid the mechanical royalties they are entitled for the use of their musical works.

The MMA created a new blanket compulsory mechanical license that DSPs can secure to cover the use of all the music they make available on their platforms, as well as a new organization – The MLC – to exclusively administer the blanket license, collect royalties from DSPs due under those licenses and distribute those royalties to rightsholders. Per the MMA, The MLC also built and maintains both a publicly accessible musical works database and a portal that MLC Members use to register, maintain, and update their musical works data.

The MLC administers blanket compulsory mechanical licenses, available to eligible streaming and download DSPs in the United States. The MLC is not involved in any other types of licenses or royalties, including public performance licenses or royalties, synchronization licenses or royalties, or record royalties.

The DSPs send sound recording usage data, and accompanying mechanical royalties, to The MLC on a monthly basis. The MLC then matches the usage data to the musical works data in The MLC database. Once the data is matched, The MLC pays out the mechanical royalties its Members. Royalties are paid out on a monthly basis.

To learn more and view a helpful timeline graphic, click here.

The MLC's musical works data is publicly available in bulk and can therefore be copied and incorporated into other industry databases. For more information on the Bulk Data Access Subscription, click here.

No, The MLC’s Public Works Search allows anyone to see the musical works data we have compiled, regardless of whether they are registered users of The MLC Portal

No, you do not need to affiliate with the Harry Fox Agency (HFA) in order to receive mechanical royalties from The MLC. 


The MLC uses the term “unmatched royalties” to refer to royalties for musical works where The MLC has not yet matched the data for a particular sound recording use (reported by DSPs) to a musical work in The MLC’s musical works database.

The MLC uses the term “historical unmatched royalties” to refer to unmatched royalties that relate to uses of musical works prior to January 1, 2021. Click here to visit our dedicated Historical Unmatched Royalties page for more information.

The MLC uses the term “unclaimed royalties” to refer to royalties that it has been able to match to a musical work in its musical works database, but where less than 100% of the ownership shares for that matched musical work have been claimed by a Member of The MLC. For example, if only 80% of a matched musical work has been claimed, the remaining 20% is unclaimed, and The MLC refers to royalties associated with that unclaimed share as “unclaimed royalties.”

Yes. Historical unmatched royalties are digital mechanical royalties related to uses of musical works by DSPs prior to January 1, 2021, which is the date the new blanket license went into effect. Some DSPs used an option given to them by the Music Modernization Act to transfer usage data and associated unpaid royalties to The MLC, so that we could attempt to match the data to works in our database and pay rightsholders. Click here to visit our dedicated Historical Unmatched Royalties page for more information.

Unmatched or unclaimed royalties, from usage occurring on or after January 1, 2021, will be held for a minimum of 3 years so we can work to find and pay the rightful owner. Any interest accrued during that time will be passed along to the rightsholders. When The MLC does eventually exhaust its efforts to find and pay the rightful owner, The MLC will distribute the remaining unmatched or unclaimed royalties to music publishers and self-administered songwriters using a market share/activity-based formula.

No, The MLC does not keep a portion of the mechanical royalties it collects to cover its operating costs. The operational costs of The MLC are paid for by DSPs through an administrative assessment set by the United States Copyright Royalty Board. The MLC distributes 100% of the mechanical royalties it collects.

Our headquarters is in Nashville, and we also have team members based in Los Angeles, Miami, New York City and London.  We will strive to reach the music publishers, administrators, and self-administered songwriters, composers and lyricists we serve wherever they are located.

Record companies will still need to secure mechanical licenses and pay mechanical royalties for mechanical uses of musical works in physical products, like CDs and vinyl records. Under the U.S. copyright law, the blanket licenses The MLC is administering can include permanent download use, but the DSPs also have the option to continue to rely on record companies to provide those licenses and pay those royalties via what is called a pass-through license.

The Harry Fox Agency (HFA) is a separate company from The MLC, that provides a variety of services to The MLC as a vendor. The services include assisting with musical works and member data management, the matching of digital uses of sound recordings to musical works, and royalty processing.

The MLC will not resolve disputes over copyright ownership. Pursuant to the MMA, The MLC has a policy for placing royalties on hold when a substantiated dispute has been raised, but the parties to the dispute, or the courts, will decide questions of ownership, not The MLC. To view The MLC's Dispute Policy, click here.

The MLC has the right to audit each DSP operating under a blanket mechanical license once every three years.

Yes! Visit our Data Programs page for more information on our API and other ways to access our data in bulk.

The royalty rates for the blanket licenses administered by The MLC are determined by the  United States Copyright Royalty Board, and are often referred to as the statutory royalty rates.

The MLC is engaged in many different outreach activities. These include working with music industry organizations to get the word out to their members in newsletters, webinars, and social media posts; holding information sessions at music industry conferences; advertising and securing editorial coverage in music-focused online and print publications; working with companies who provide goods or services to music publishers and songwriters, composers and lyricists; and providing educational content to organizations dedicated to teaching music publishing to songwriters, composers and lyricists and future music industry professionals. 

If you represent an organization that would like to explore ways to work with us, please contact us at

While The MLC is the only entity that administers the blanket compulsory mechanical license, other companies still have the ability to administer voluntary licenses between DSPs and rightsholders, including voluntary mechanical licenses for digital uses.

Record companies are not required to directly deliver their sound recording data to The MLC, but to the extent that they may also operate a DSP or music publisher, they may need to do so in connection with those activities. 

The MLC does not have any current plans to incorporate blockchain technology into its systems.